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Retreat, The

The Retreat was founded in 1792 and opened in 1796 by William Tuke. It was established initially to provide a place where Quakers who were mentally ill could be treated with respect and dignity. The first buildings were designed and built 1794, and include the work of several of the foremost architects of more »< Read More...

Quakerism (The Society of Friends) in York

York has a longstanding Quaker tradition that starts with George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, who was thrown out of York Minster in 1651 for preaching against the established church. The Quakers shunned outward forms of ritual, sacrament, oath-taking, and formulaic prayer; their faith saw the voice of God as more »< Read More...

Quakers and Education

From its beginnings the Society of Friends always saw the importance of education, and as early as 1695, the London Yearly Meeting recommended that: ‘schools and schoolmasters who are faithful Friends, and well qualified, be placed and encouraged in all counties, cities, great towns, or places where there may be need. And that such more »< Read More...

Quakers, Rowntrees as (i.e. contribution towards Society of Friends nationally)

The Rowntrees’ life and work is informed by their Quaker faith, which is seen especially in a sense of quiet service, public responsibility, civic pride, pragmatism and trustworthiness. Joseph Rowntree (Senior) was instinctively attracted to the growing evangelical spirit amongst Quakers in the early 19th century, and found the quietist views prevalent in more »< Read More...

Pubs in York in the 19th century

Seebohm Rowntree’s work on Poverty contains a map showing the concentration of the public houses of York. References Hugh Murray, A Directory of York Pubs 1455-20 Read More...

Quakers in the 18th – 19th century

Although in the mid 18th century Quakers had numbered around 40,000, that number had halved a century later, although the 1860s marked the beginnings of a revival. The reasons for the decline are not difficult to understand at a time when it was necessary to travel long distances for silent meetings, when there more »< Read More...

Quaker Burial Ground, Cromwell Road, Bishophill

This piece of land was purchased in 1667 and used as the first burial ground in York for Quakers. John Woolman (friend of Benjamin Franklin and early advocate of the abolition of slavery) is buried there, as are some of the Tukes, and Lindley Murray, the grammarian. Now a serene garden with lime more »< Read More...

Public Health in York

The fast population growth of the mid 19th century led to an expansion of the slum areas and the inadequate sewage system led to outbreaks of plague and disease. ‘Night soil’ (sewage) was dug into holes in back-yard ‘privies’ that were regularly used by more than one household, and in some slums, a more »< Read More...

Poverty in York

Seebohm Rowntree showed that 27.8% of the people in York were living below the poverty line in 1900. Of these 9.91% lived in primary poverty, and 17.78% in secondary poverty. He showed further that poverty was a cycle, and that the poor were not necessarily to blame for their conditions of poverty. Seebohm’s more »< Read More...

Poverty Line

One of the first to define this commonly used term still today was Seebohm Rowntree. It denotes the minimum standard of necessities for life (fuel, lighting, rent etc) plus a calorific intake. External Links http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/1859352227. Read More...